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by Gary L. Baker, Patent Attorney


Article V The Congress, whenever two thirds of both houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose amendments to this Constitution, or, on the application of the legislatures of two thirds of the several states, shall call a convention for proposing amendments, which, in either case, shall be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of this Constitution, when ratified by the legislatures of three fourths of the several states, or by conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by the Congress; provided that no amendment which may be made prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any manner affect the first and fourth clauses in the ninth section of the first article; and that no state, without its consent, shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in the Senate.


Article VI, All debts contracted and engagements entered into, before the adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as under the Confederation.

This Constitution, and the laws of the United States which shall be made in pursuance thereof; and all treaties made, or which shall be made, under the authority of the United States, shall be the supreme law of the land; and the judges in every state shall be bound thereby, anything in the Constitution or laws of any State to the contrary notwithstanding.

The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the members of the several state legislatures, and all executive and judicial officers, both of the United States and of the several states, shall be bound by oath or affirmation, to support this Constitution; but no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any office or public trust under the United States.


Article VII,  The ratification of the conventions of nine states, shall be sufficient for the establishment of this Constitution between the states so ratifying the same.

Done in convention by the unanimous consent of the states present the seventeenth day of September in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty seven and of the independence of the United States of America the twelfth.

In witness whereof We have hereunto subscribed our Names, 

President and deputy from Virginia:

            George Washington

 New Hampshire:

              John Langdon, Nicholas Gilman


              Nathaniel Gorham, Rufus King


              Wm. Saml. Johnson, Roger Sherman

 New York:

              Alexander Hamilton

 New Jersey:

              Wil. Livingston, David Brearly, Wm. Paterson, Jona. Dayton


              B. Franklin, Thomas Mifflin, Robt. Morris, Geo. Clymer, Thos. FitzSimons, Jared Ingersoll,

              James Wilson, Gouv Morris


              Geo. Read, Gunning Bedford jr, John Dickinson, Richard Bassett, Jaco. Broom


              James McHenry, Dan of St Thos. Jenifer, Danl Carroll


              John Blair, James Madison Jr.

 North Carolina:

              Wm. Blount, Richd. Dobbs Spaight, Hu Williamson

 South Carolina:

              J. Rutledge, Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, Charles Pinckney, Pierce Butler


              William Few, Abr Baldwin


Article I - Legislative Powers and Congress

Article II - Executive Powers and the President

Article III - Judicial Powers and the Courts

Article IV - The States

Amendments to the Constitution

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